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Biographies des généraux de l'Union - Histoire

Biographies des généraux de l'Union - Histoire


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Généraux de l'Union

Ulysse S. Grant - Le général Grant a dirigé l'armée du Tennessee au début de la guerre. Il a remporté les premières victoires à Fort Henry et Fort Donelson, ce qui lui a valu le surnom de « Reddition inconditionnelle ». Après avoir remporté de grandes victoires à Shiloh et Vicksburg, Grant a été promu par le président Lincoln pour diriger l'ensemble de l'armée de l'Union. Grant a mené l'armée du Potomac dans plusieurs batailles contre le général confédéré Robert E. Lee et a finalement accepté sa reddition au palais de justice d'Appomattox.

George McClellan - Le général McClellan est nommé chef de l'armée de l'Union du Potomac après la première bataille de Bull Run. McClellan s'est avéré être un général timide. Il a toujours pensé qu'il était en infériorité numérique alors qu'en fait, son armée était généralement beaucoup plus grande que l'armée confédérée. McClellan a dirigé l'armée de l'Union à la bataille d'Antietam, mais a refusé de poursuivre les confédérés après la bataille et a été relevé de son commandement.

William Tecumseh Sherman - Le général Sherman dirigé par Grant à la bataille de Shiloh et au siège de Vicksburg. Il prend alors le commandement de sa propre armée et conquiert la ville d'Atlanta. Il est surtout connu pour sa "marche vers la mer" d'Atlanta à Savannah où il a détruit tout ce qui pouvait être utilisé contre son armée en cours de route.

Joseph Hooker - Le général Hooker a commandé plusieurs grandes batailles de la guerre civile, notamment la bataille d'Antietam et la bataille de Fredericksburg. Après Fredericksburg, il commanda toute l'armée du Potomac. Il n'a pas occupé cette position très longtemps car il a rapidement subi une lourde défaite à la bataille de Chancellorsville. Il a été démis de ses fonctions par Abraham Lincoln peu de temps avant la bataille de Gettysburg.

Winfield Scott Hancock - Le général Hancock était considéré comme l'un des commandants les plus talentueux et courageux de l'armée de l'Union. Il a commandé plusieurs batailles majeures, dont la bataille d'Antietam, la bataille de Gettysburg et la bataille de Spotsylvania Court House. Il est surtout connu pour sa bravoure et son leadership lors de la bataille de Gettysburg.


John F. Reynolds

John Fulton Reynolds est né le 20 septembre 1820 à Lancaster, en Pennsylvanie. Il était l'un des onze enfants. En 1837, il est nommé à l'Académie militaire des États-Unis à West Point par le futur président James Buchanan, un ami du père de Reynolds. Reynolds a obtenu son diplôme en 1841, terminant 26e dans une classe de 50. Ses camarades de classe comprenaient les futurs généraux de la guerre civile Horatio Wright, Richard Garnett, Don Carolos Buell, Israel Richardson et Nathaniel Lyon.

Après l'obtention de son diplôme, Reynolds est nommé sous-lieutenant dans la 3e artillerie des États-Unis, stationné à Fort McHenry à Baltimore, Maryland. Au cours des quatre années suivantes, il servira également à Fort Pickens et Fort Marion en Floride et à Fort Moultrie à Charleston, en Caroline du Sud. Pendant la guerre du Mexique, Reynolds, alors 1er lieutenant, a servi sous les ordres du général Zachary Taylor. Il a été breveté deux fois pour bravoure. Lors de la bataille de Buena Vista, son artillerie a arrêté une attaque de flanc par la cavalerie ennemie, forçant l'armée mexicaine à se retirer.

Après la guerre du Mexique, Reynolds a servi à divers postes, dont Fort Preble dans le Maine, Fort Lafayette à New York et Fort Ortford dans l'Oregon. Au cours de cette période, il se fiance à Catherine Mary Hewitt. Parce qu'elle était catholique et qu'il était protestant, cependant, Reynolds a gardé leur engagement secret. De septembre 1860 à juin 1861, il est commandant des cadets à West Point, où il sert également d'instructeur.

Reynolds est resté un partisan de James Buchanan et de ses politiques pro-esclavagistes. Après le raid de John Brown sur Harpers Ferry, il a commenté que si "un peu plus de la bande abolitionniste" étaient pendus, "cela arrêterait effectivement l'agitation pendant un certain temps". Bien qu'il n'ait pas soutenu la politique anti-esclavagiste, il était un unioniste engagé. Le 20 août 1861, il est nommé brigadier général des volontaires de l'armée de l'Union et prend le commandement d'une des brigades des réserves de Pennsylvanie.

Au cours de la campagne des sept jours, il commanda sa brigade lors des batailles de Beaver Dam Creek et de Gaines' Mill. Après ce dernier, un Reynolds épuisé a été capturé alors qu'il tentait de dormir. Un Reynolds embarrassé a été réconforté par son collègue d'avant-guerre, le général confédéré D.H. Hill, qui lui a dit "ne vous sentez pas si mal à propos de votre capture, c'est le sort des guerres".

Reynolds n'est pas resté longtemps prisonnier quelques semaines plus tard, il a été échangé et placé à la tête de toute la division des réserves de Pennsylvanie. Lors de la bataille de Second Manassas, Reynolds a mené une contre-attaque d'arrière-garde qui a permis à l'armée de l'Union de gagner du temps pour échapper à une éventuelle annihilation. Il n'a pas pu participer à la bataille d'Antietam parce qu'un gouverneur de Pennsylvanie paniqué, Andrew Curtin, a exigé qu'il commande les forces de la milice locale lors de l'invasion de Lee.

Reynolds commande à nouveau sa division à Fredericksburg. Après Fredericksburg, lorsque le général Joseph Hooker reçut le commandement de l'armée du Potomac, Reynolds reçut le commandement de l'ancien premier corps de Hooker. Après la bataille de Chancellorsville, Reynolds était l'un des nombreux généraux de l'Union qui ont demandé la destitution de Hooker. Cependant, lorsque le président Lincoln a rencontré Reynolds et lui a offert le commandement de l'armée du Potomac, Reynolds a répondu qu'il n'accepterait le commandement que s'il pouvait être sûr qu'il n'y aurait aucune ingérence de ses supérieurs à Washington. Ne voulant pas sacrifier le contrôle civil de l'armée, Lincoln mit à la place l'ami de Reynolds, le général George Meade, aux commandes.

Le matin du 1er juillet 1863, alors qu'il menait ses forces vers Gettysburg, en Pennsylvanie, Reynolds reçut un message indiquant que les forces confédérées étaient également presque là. Reynolds a conduit son premier corps à McPherson Ridge, quand il a reçu une balle dans le cou. Reynolds est mort sur le coup. Il était le soldat le plus haut gradé de chaque côté tué à Gettysburg.


John A. Logan

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John A. Logan, en entier John Alexandre Logan, (né le 9 février 1826, comté de Jackson, Illinois, États-Unis - décédé le 26 décembre 1886, Washington, DC), homme politique américain, général de l'Union pendant la guerre de Sécession (1861-1865) et auteur qui a joué un rôle central dans la création du Memorial Day. Logan a servi à la fois à la Chambre des représentants et au Sénat des États-Unis et a été candidat à la vice-présidence.

Fils homonyme d'un éminent ancien médecin propriétaire d'esclaves et législateur de l'État, Logan a reçu sa première éducation par l'intermédiaire de tuteurs et d'écoles privées dans le sud de l'Illinois. Il a travaillé comme jockey et a couru les pur-sang de son père dans plusieurs États. Logan est entré dans la guerre américano-mexicaine en tant que sous-lieutenant dans le 1st Illinois Infantry mais est resté à Santa Fe (maintenant au Nouveau-Mexique) et n'a vu aucune action. Après un bref passage en tant que greffier du comté de Jackson, dans l'Illinois, il obtient un diplôme en droit de l'Université de Louisville (Kentucky) en 1851 et remporte un mandat de quatre ans en tant que procureur de l'Illinois peu après son admission au barreau.

Logan (surnommé « Black Jack » pour son teint basané, ses cheveux et sa moustache d'un noir de jais) a remporté les élections à la Chambre des représentants des États-Unis en 1858 et à nouveau en 1860 en tant que démocrate jacksonien du 9e district du Congrès de l'Illinois, une région aux loyautés partisanes et divisées. au début de la guerre civile. Logan a tenté une position neutre pendant les premiers mois de la guerre civile avant d'entrer dans l'armée de l'Union en tant que colonel du 31e régiment d'infanterie de l'Illinois, qu'il avait organisé principalement à partir de son district du Congrès. Dès le début, il a servi sous le général Ulysses S. Grant. Après avoir été grièvement blessé à la bataille de Fort Donelson (février 1862), Logan se rétablit avec une promotion au grade de général de brigade en mars 1862 et démissionna de son siège au Congrès pour l'accepter. Un an plus tard, Grant remporta à Logan une commission de général de division en charge d'une division du XVIIe corps de l'armée du Tennessee de Grant. Au cours de la campagne de Vicksburg en 1863, Logan a joué un rôle déterminant dans les victoires de l'Union à Port Gibson, Raymond et Champion Hill. Grant a décerné à Logan l'honneur de diriger les premières troupes de l'Union dans la ville capturée de Vicksburg le 4 juillet à la fin de la campagne.

Promu au commandement de l'armée du XV corps du Tennessee en 1864, Logan a servi dans la division militaire du Mississippi du major-général William Tecumseh Sherman pendant la campagne d'Atlanta (mai-septembre 1864), remportant la bataille de Dallas, Géorgie (28 mai) , où son corps a combattu sans aide. Après que le major-général James B. McPherson a été tué au début de la bataille cruciale d'Atlanta (22 juillet), Logan lui a succédé en tant que commandant de l'armée du Tennessee. Bien qu'il ait été une source d'inspiration pour la victoire de l'Union, Logan a été rétrogradé au commandement du corps quatre jours plus tard en faveur du major-général Oliver O. Howard, que Sherman jugeait plus capable de s'acquitter des tâches complètes d'un département militaire. Toujours en Géorgie, Logan a remporté la bataille d'Ezra Church (28 juillet) et le premier jour (31 août) de la victoire de l'Union à Jonesboro, qui a ensuite conduit à la chute d'Atlanta deux jours plus tard.

En réponse à des ordres spéciaux de Washington, Logan a été temporairement libéré de l'armée pour faire campagne dans l'Illinois pour Pres. La réélection d'Abraham Lincoln. Aux yeux de certains historiens, sa performance de général « politique » en mai-octobre 1864 n'a jamais été dépassée. De retour au commandement du XV corps en janvier 1865, Logan participa à la marche victorieuse à travers les Carolines. Il a été restauré au commandement de l'armée du Tennessee à la fin de la guerre. Il rassembla son armée le 13 juillet 1865.


Irvin McDowell

Irvin McDowell est diplômé de l'Académie militaire des États-Unis en 1838 et a enseigné la tactique à l'académie de 1841 à 1845 à de nombreux généraux qu'il allait éventuellement affronter sur le champ de bataille. Il a servi comme aide de camp du général J. E. Wool pendant la guerre américano-mexicaine et a reçu un brevet de capitaine pour son service à la bataille de Buena Vista.

Au début de la guerre de Sécession, le 14 mai 1861, Irvin McDowell est promu au grade de général de brigade en raison de ses liens politiques avec le secrétaire au Trésor, Salmon P. Chase. Bien qu'il n'ait jamais commandé de troupes au combat, McDowell, confronté à des pressions politiques, attaqua les forces confédérées lors de la première bataille de Manassas, où il fut par conséquent vaincu. Après la défaite, le général George B. McClellan a été nommé commandant de la nouvelle armée du Potomac, et McDowell a été détaché de l'armée pour protéger Washington, DC. McDowell commandera plus tard un corps lors de la deuxième bataille de Manassas, qui se solda par une autre défaite. Le 1er juillet 1864, McDowell prend le commandement du département du Pacifique et reste relativement inactif pendant le reste de la guerre.


Contenu

Thomas est né à Newsom's Depot, dans le comté de Southampton, en Virginie, à huit kilomètres de la frontière de la Caroline du Nord. [1] Son père, John Thomas, d'origine galloise [2], et sa mère, Elizabeth Rochelle Thomas, descendante d'immigrants huguenots français, ont eu six enfants. George avait trois sœurs et deux frères. [3] La famille menait un style de vie de plantation de classe supérieure. En 1829, ils possédaient 685 acres (2,77 km 2 ) et 15 esclaves. John est décédé dans un accident de ferme alors que George avait 13 ans, laissant la famille en difficulté financière. [4] George Thomas, ses sœurs et sa mère veuve ont été forcés de fuir leur maison et de se cacher dans les bois voisins pendant la rébellion des esclaves de Nat Turner en 1831. [5] Benson Bobrick a suggéré que pendant que quelques actes répressifs étaient imposés suite à l'écrasement de la révolte, Thomas a pris la leçon d'une autre manière, voyant que l'esclavage était une institution si vile qu'il avait forcé les esclaves à agir dans la violence. Ce fut un événement majeur dans la formation de ses vues sur l'esclavage que l'idée de l'esclave satisfait sous la garde d'un suzerain bienveillant était un mythe sentimental. [6] Christopher Einolf, en revanche, a écrit « Pour George Thomas, l'opinion selon laquelle l'esclavage était nécessaire comme moyen de contrôler les Noirs était étayée par son expérience personnelle de la rébellion de Nat Turner. . Thomas n'a laissé aucune trace écrite de son opinion sur l'esclavage, mais le fait qu'il ait possédé des esclaves pendant une grande partie de sa vie indique qu'il n'y était pas opposé. » [7] Une histoire traditionnelle est que Thomas a enseigné jusqu'à 15 des esclaves de sa famille à lire, violant une loi de Virginie qui l'interdisait [8] et malgré les souhaits de son père. [9]

Thomas a été nommé à l'Académie militaire des États-Unis à West Point, New York, en 1836 par le membre du Congrès John Y. Mason, qui a averti Thomas qu'aucun candidat de son district n'avait jamais obtenu son diplôme avec succès. Entré à l'âge de 20 ans, Thomas était connu de ses camarades cadets sous le nom de "Old Tom" et il est devenu instantanément ami avec ses colocataires, William T. Sherman et Stewart Van Vliet. Il a fait des progrès académiques constants, a été nommé élève-officier au cours de sa deuxième année et a obtenu son diplôme de 12e dans une classe de 42 en 1840. [10] Il a été nommé sous-lieutenant dans la compagnie D, 3e artillerie américaine. [11]

La première affectation de Thomas avec son régiment d'artillerie a commencé à la fin de 1840 à l'avant-poste primitif de Fort Lauderdale, en Floride, pendant les guerres séminoles, où ses troupes effectuaient des missions d'infanterie. Il les a dirigés dans des patrouilles réussies et a été nommé premier lieutenant breveté le 6 novembre 1841. [12] De 1842 à 1845, il a occupé des postes à la Nouvelle-Orléans, à Fort Moultrie à Charleston Harbor et à Fort McHenry à Baltimore. Alors que la guerre américano-mexicaine se profile, son régiment est envoyé au Texas en juin 1845. [13]

Au Mexique, Thomas a dirigé une équipe d'artillerie avec distinction lors des batailles de Fort Brown, Resaca de la Palma, Monterrey et Buena Vista, recevant trois promotions de brevet. [14] À Buena Vista, le général Zachary Taylor a rapporté que "les services de l'artillerie légère, toujours remarquables, étaient plus qu'exceptionnellement distingués" pendant la bataille. Brick. Le général John E. Wool a écrit à propos de Thomas et d'un autre officier que « sans notre artillerie, nous n'aurions pas maintenu notre position une seule heure ». Le commandant de la batterie de Thomas a écrit que « le sang-froid et la fermeté de Thomas n'ont pas peu contribué au succès de la journée. Le lieutenant Thomas a plus que soutenu la réputation dont il jouissait depuis longtemps dans son régiment en tant qu'artilleur précis et scientifique ». [15] Pendant la guerre, Thomas a servi étroitement avec un officier d'artillerie qui serait un antagoniste principal dans la guerre civile, le capitaine Braxton Bragg. [16]

Thomas a été réaffecté en Floride en 1849-1850. En 1851, il retourne à West Point en tant qu'instructeur de cavalerie et d'artillerie, où il établit une relation professionnelle et personnelle étroite avec un autre officier de Virginie, le lieutenant-colonel Robert E. Lee, surintendant de l'Académie. Sa nomination là-bas était basée en partie sur une recommandation de Braxton Bragg. Préoccupé par le mauvais état des chevaux âgés de l'Académie, Thomas modéra la tendance des cadets à les surmener pendant les exercices de cavalerie et devint connu sous le nom de « Slow Trot Thomas ». Deux des étudiants de Thomas qui ont reçu sa recommandation d'affectation à la cavalerie, J.E.B. Stuart et Fitzhugh Lee sont devenus d'éminents généraux de cavalerie confédérée. Un autre lien de la guerre civile était un cadet expulsé pour des raisons disciplinaires sur la recommandation de Thomas, John Schofield, qui dénoncerait Thomas dans des écrits postbellum sur son service en tant que commandant de corps sous Thomas dans la campagne Franklin-Nashville. Le 17 novembre 1852, Thomas épousa Frances Lucretia Kellogg, 31 ans, de Troy, New York. Le couple resta à West Point jusqu'en 1854. Thomas fut promu capitaine le 24 décembre 1853. [17]

Au printemps 1854, le régiment d'artillerie de Thomas fut transféré en Californie et il mena deux compagnies jusqu'à San Francisco via l'isthme de Panama, puis une épuisante marche terrestre jusqu'à Fort Yuma. Le 12 mai 1855, Thomas est nommé major du 2e de cavalerie américaine (rebaptisé plus tard 5e de cavalerie américaine) par Jefferson Davis, alors secrétaire à la Guerre. Encore une fois, Braxton Bragg avait fourni une recommandation pour l'avancement de Thomas. Au fur et à mesure que la guerre civile approchait, on soupçonnait que Davis avait rassemblé et entraîné une unité de combat d'officiers d'élite de l'armée américaine qui nourrissaient des sympathies du Sud, et la nomination de Thomas à ce régiment impliquait que ses collègues supposaient qu'il soutiendrait son état natal de Virginie en un futur conflit. [18] Thomas a repris ses liens étroits avec le commandant en second du régiment, Robert E. Lee, et les deux officiers ont beaucoup voyagé ensemble en service détaché pour le devoir de cour martiale. En octobre 1857, le major Thomas prend le commandement par intérim du régiment de cavalerie, une affectation qu'il conservera pendant deux ans et demi. Le 26 août 1860, lors d'un affrontement avec un guerrier Comanche, Thomas fut blessé par une flèche traversant la chair près de son menton et plantant sa poitrine à Clear Fork, Brazos River, Texas. Thomas a retiré la flèche et, après qu'un chirurgien ait pansé la blessure, a continué à diriger l'expédition. C'est la seule blessure de combat que Thomas a subie au cours de sa longue carrière militaire. [19]

En novembre 1860, Thomas demande un congé d'un an. Sa carrière d'avant-guerre avait été distinguée et productive, et il était l'un des rares officiers à avoir une expérience de terrain dans les trois armes de combat : infanterie, cavalerie et artillerie. Sur le chemin du retour vers le sud de la Virginie, il a subi un accident à Lynchburg, en Virginie, tombant d'un quai de train et se blessant gravement le dos. Cet accident l'a amené à envisager de quitter le service militaire et lui a causé de la douleur pour le reste de sa vie. Continuant à New York pour rendre visite à la famille de sa femme, Thomas s'est arrêté à Washington, DC, et a conféré avec le général en chef Winfield Scott, l'informant que le major-général David E. Twiggs, le commandant du département du Texas, abritait sympathies sécessionnistes et on ne pouvait pas faire confiance à son poste. [20]

Rester avec l'Union Modifier

Au début de la guerre de Sécession, 19 des 36 officiers du 2e de cavalerie américaine ont démissionné, dont trois des supérieurs de Thomas : Albert Sidney Johnston, Robert E. Lee et William J. Hardee. [21] De nombreux officiers nés dans le Sud étaient déchirés entre la loyauté envers leurs États et la loyauté envers leur pays. Thomas a lutté avec la décision mais a choisi de rester avec les États-Unis. Sa femme née dans le Nord a probablement contribué à influencer sa décision. En réponse, sa famille a retourné sa photo contre le mur, détruit ses lettres et ne lui a plus jamais parlé. (Pendant les temps difficiles économiques dans le Sud après la guerre, Thomas a envoyé de l'argent à ses sœurs, qui ont refusé avec colère de l'accepter, déclarant qu'elles n'avaient pas de frère.) [22]

Néanmoins, Thomas est resté dans l'armée de l'Union avec un certain degré de suspicion qui l'entourait. Le 18 janvier 1861, quelques mois avant Fort Sumter, il avait postulé pour un poste de commandant des cadets au Virginia Military Institute. [23] Toute tendance réelle à la cause sécessionniste, cependant, pourrait être réfutée lorsqu'il a refusé l'offre du gouverneur de Virginie John Letcher de devenir chef de l'artillerie de l'armée provisoire de Virginie. [24] Le 18 juin, son ancien élève et collègue virginien, le colonel confédéré J.E.B. Stuart, écrivit à sa femme : « Le vieux George H. Thomas commande la cavalerie de l'ennemi. Je voudrais pendre, pendre lui comme un traître à son état natal. » [25] Néanmoins, alors que la guerre civile se poursuivait, il gagna l'affection des soldats de l'Union servant sous ses ordres en tant que « soldat du soldat », qui se mit à se référer affectueusement à Thomas comme « Pap Thomas ". [26]

Kentucky Modifier

Thomas est promu successivement lieutenant-colonel (le 25 avril 1861, remplaçant Robert E. Lee) et colonel (3 mai, remplaçant Albert Sidney Johnston) dans l'armée régulière, et brigadier général des volontaires (17 août). [27] Dans la première campagne de Bull Run, il a commandé une brigade sous le commandement du major-général Robert Patterson dans la vallée de Shenandoah, [28] mais toutes ses affectations ultérieures étaient dans le théâtre occidental. Relevant du major-général Robert Anderson dans le Kentucky, Thomas a été affecté à la formation des recrues et au commandement d'une force indépendante dans la moitié est de l'État. Le 18 janvier 1862, il bat le brigadier confédéré. Gén. George B. Crittenden et Felix Zollicoffer à Mill Springs, remportant la première victoire importante de l'Union dans la guerre, brisant la force confédérée dans l'est du Kentucky et remontant le moral de l'Union. [29]

Shiloh et Corinthe Modifier

Le 2 décembre 1861, le brigadier. Le général Thomas a été affecté au commandement de la 1re division de l'armée de l'Ohio du major-général Don Carlos Buell. Il était présent au deuxième jour de la bataille de Shiloh (7 avril 1862), mais est arrivé après la fin des combats. Le vainqueur à Shiloh, le général de division Ulysses S. Grant, a été sévèrement critiqué pour la bataille sanglante et son supérieur, le général de division Henry W. Halleck, a réorganisé son département du Mississippi pour libérer Grant du commandement direct sur le terrain. Les trois armées du département ont été divisées et regroupées en trois « ailes ». Thomas, promu major-général à compter du 25 avril 1862, reçut le commandement de l'aile droite, composée de quatre divisions de l'ancienne armée du Tennessee de Grant et une de l'armée de l'Ohio. Thomas a mené avec succès cette armée putative dans le siège de Corinthe. Le 10 juin, Grant reprend le commandement de la première armée du Tennessee.

Perryville, Stones River, Chickamauga et Chattanooga Modifier

Thomas reprit du service sous Don Carlos Buell. Pendant l'invasion du Kentucky par le général confédéré Braxton Bragg à l'automne 1862, le haut commandement de l'Union s'inquiète des tendances prudentes de Buell et offre le commandement de l'armée de l'Ohio à Thomas, qui refuse. Thomas a servi comme commandant en second de Buell à la bataille de Perryville, bien que tactiquement peu concluante, la bataille a stoppé l'invasion du Kentucky par Bragg alors qu'il se retira volontairement dans le Tennessee. De nouveau frustré par la poursuite inefficace de Bragg par Buell, l'Union le remplace par le major-général William Rosecrans. Thomas a écrit le 30 octobre 1862, une lettre de protestation au secrétaire Stanton, estimant que Rosecrans était son cadet, mais Stanton a répondu le 15 novembre, lui disant que ce n'était pas le cas (Rosecrans avait en fait été son cadet, mais sa commission en tant que major général avait été antidatée pour le rendre supérieur à Thomas) et lui rappelant son refus antérieur d'accepter le commandement, Thomas s'est opposé et a retiré sa protestation. [30]

Combattant sous Rosecrans, commandant l'aile "Centre" de la nouvelle armée du Cumberland, Thomas a donné une performance impressionnante à la bataille de Stones River, tenant le centre de la ligne de l'Union en retraite et empêchant une fois de plus une victoire de Bragg. Il était en charge de la partie la plus importante des manœuvres de Decherd à Chattanooga pendant la campagne de Tullahoma (22 juin – 3 juillet 1863) et la traversée de la rivière Tennessee. À la bataille de Chickamauga le 19 septembre 1863, commandant maintenant le XIVe corps, il occupa à nouveau une position désespérée contre l'assaut de Bragg tandis que la ligne de l'Union sur sa droite s'effondrait. Thomas rassembla des unités brisées et dispersées sur Horseshoe Ridge pour éviter qu'une défaite significative de l'Union ne se transforme en une déroute désespérée. Le futur président James Garfield, un officier de terrain de l'armée du Cumberland, a rendu visite à Thomas pendant la bataille, portant l'ordre de Rosecrans de se retirer lorsque Thomas a déclaré qu'il devrait rester en arrière pour assurer la sécurité de l'armée, Garfield a déclaré à Rosecrans que Thomas était "debout Comme une roche." [31] Après la bataille, il est devenu largement connu sous le surnom "Le Rocher de Chickamauga", représentant sa détermination à tenir une position vitale contre toute attente.

Thomas succéda à Rosecrans à la tête de l'armée du Cumberland peu de temps avant les batailles de Chattanooga (23-25 ​​novembre 1863), une superbe victoire de l'Union qui fut mise en évidence par les troupes de Thomas prenant d'assaut la ligne confédérée sur Missionary Ridge. Alors que l'armée du Cumberland avançait plus que prévu, le général Grant, sur Orchard Knob, demanda à Thomas : « Qui a ordonné l'avance ? » Thomas a répondu: "Je ne sais pas. Je ne l'ai pas fait."

Atlanta et Franklin/Nashville Modifier

Au cours de l'avancée du major-général William Tecumseh Sherman à travers la Géorgie au printemps 1864, l'armée du Cumberland comptait plus de 60 000 hommes, et l'état-major de Thomas s'occupait de la logistique et de l'ingénierie pour l'ensemble du groupe d'armées de Sherman, notamment en développant une nouvelle série de pontons Cumberland. Lors de la bataille de Peachtree Creek (20 juillet 1864), la défense de Thomas endommagea gravement l'armée du lieutenant-général John B. Hood lors de sa première tentative de briser le siège d'Atlanta.

Lorsque Hood se sépara d'Atlanta à l'automne 1864, menaça la longue ligne de communication de Sherman et tenta de forcer Sherman à le suivre, Sherman abandonna ses communications et s'embarqua sur la Marche vers la mer. Thomas est resté pour combattre Hood dans la campagne Franklin-Nashville. Thomas, avec une plus petite force, a couru avec Hood pour atteindre Nashville, où il devait recevoir des renforts. [32]

Lors de la bataille de Franklin le 30 novembre 1864, une grande partie de la force de Thomas, sous le commandement du major-général John M. Schofield, infligea à Hood une lourde défaite et le tint en échec assez longtemps pour couvrir la concentration des forces de l'Union dans Nashville. A Nashville, Thomas dut organiser ses forces, qui étaient venues de toutes les régions de l'Ouest et qui comprenaient de nombreux jeunes soldats et même des employés du quartier-maître. Il refusa d'attaquer jusqu'à ce que son armée soit prête et que la glace recouvrant le sol ait suffisamment fondu pour que ses hommes puissent bouger. Le Nord, y compris le général Grant lui-même (maintenant général en chef de toutes les armées de l'Union), s'impatienta devant le retard. Le major-général John A. Logan a été envoyé avec l'ordre de remplacer Thomas, et peu de temps après, Grant a commencé un voyage à l'ouest de City Point, en Virginie, pour prendre le commandement en personne. [33]

Thomas attaqua le 15 décembre 1864 lors de la bataille de Nashville et détruisit efficacement le commandement de Hood en deux jours de combat. Thomas a envoyé à sa femme, Frances Lucretia Kellogg Thomas, le télégramme suivant, la seule communication survivante de la correspondance des Thomas : « Nous avons fouetté l'ennemi, fait de nombreux prisonniers et une artillerie considérable.

Thomas a été nommé major général dans l'armée régulière, avec la date du grade de sa victoire à Nashville, et a reçu les remerciements du Congrès : [34]

. au major-général George H. Thomas et aux officiers et soldats sous son commandement pour leur habileté et leur courage intrépide, grâce auxquels l'armée rebelle dirigée par le général Hood a été battue et chassée de l'État du Tennessee.

Thomas a peut-être ressenti sa récente promotion au grade de général de division (ce qui l'a rendu subalterne par date de rang à Sheridan) lorsqu'il a reçu le télégramme l'annonçant, il a fait remarquer au chirurgien George Cooper : « Je suppose qu'il vaut mieux tard que jamais, mais c'est trop tard pour être apprécié. J'ai gagné ça à Chickamauga.". [35]

Thomas a également reçu un autre surnom de sa victoire : « Le traîneau de Nashville ». [ citation requise ]

Après la fin de la guerre civile, Thomas a commandé le département du Cumberland dans le Kentucky et le Tennessee, et parfois aussi en Virginie-Occidentale et dans certaines parties de la Géorgie, du Mississippi et de l'Alabama, jusqu'en 1869. Pendant la période de reconstruction, Thomas a agi pour protéger les affranchis du blanc les abus. Il a mis en place des commissions militaires pour faire respecter les contrats de travail puisque les tribunaux locaux avaient cessé de fonctionner ou étaient biaisés contre les Noirs. Thomas a également utilisé des troupes pour protéger les lieux menacés par la violence du Ku Klux Klan. [36] Dans un rapport de novembre 1868, Thomas a noté les efforts déployés par d'anciens confédérés pour présenter la Confédération sous un jour positif, en déclarant :

[L]es plus grands efforts déployés par les insurgés vaincus depuis la fin de la guerre ont été de promulguer l'idée que la cause de la liberté, de la justice, de l'humanité, de l'égalité, et tout le calendrier des vertus de la liberté, a subi violence et tort quand l'effort pour l'indépendance du sud a échoué. Il s'agit, bien entendu, d'une sorte de cantique politique, par lequel le crime de trahison pourrait être recouvert d'un faux vernis de patriotisme, afin que les déclencheurs de la rébellion puissent entrer dans l'histoire main dans la main avec les défenseurs du gouvernement. , effaçant ainsi de leurs propres mains leurs propres taches une espèce d'auto-pardon étonnant dans son effronterie, quand on considère que la vie et la propriété - justement confisquées par les lois du pays, de la guerre et des nations, par la magnanimité du gouvernement et du peuple — n'a pas été exigé d'eux.

Le président Andrew Johnson a offert à Thomas le grade de lieutenant général - avec l'intention de remplacer éventuellement Grant, un républicain et futur président, avec Thomas comme général en chef - mais le toujours fidèle Thomas a demandé au Sénat de retirer son nom pour cette nomination parce qu'il ne voulait pas faire partie de la politique. En 1869, il demanda à être affecté au commandement de la division militaire du Pacifique dont le siège était au Presidio de San Francisco. Il y mourut d'un accident vasculaire cérébral le 28 mars 1870, alors qu'il rédigeait une réponse à un article critiquant sa carrière militaire par son rival de guerre John Schofield. [34] Sherman, alors général en chef, a personnellement transmis la nouvelle au président Grant à la Maison Blanche. Aucun des parents de sang de Thomas n'a assisté à ses funérailles car ils ne lui avaient jamais pardonné sa loyauté envers l'Union. Il a été enterré au cimetière d'Oakwood, à Troy, New York. Sa pierre tombale a été sculptée par Robert E. Launitz et comprend un sarcophage en marbre blanc surmonté d'un pygargue à tête blanche. [38]

Ses cadets à West Point lui avaient donné le surnom de "Slow Trot Thomas", et ce sobriquet a été utilisé pour diminuer sa réputation. Il se déplaçait lentement à cause d'une blessure au dos, mais il était mentalement tout sauf lent, seulement méthodique. Il était connu pour son jugement précis et sa connaissance approfondie de sa profession et une fois qu'il avait saisi un problème et que le moment était venu d'agir, il portait un coup vigoureux et rapide. [ citation requise ]

L'organisation des anciens combattants de l'armée du Cumberland, tout au long de son existence, s'est battue pour qu'il soit honoré pour tout ce qu'il avait fait. [ citation requise ]

Thomas n'était commandant en chef que de deux batailles de la guerre de Sécession, la bataille de Mill Springs au début et la bataille de Nashville vers la fin. Les deux étaient des victoires. Cependant, ses contributions aux batailles de Stones River, Chickamauga, Chattanooga et Peachtree Creek ont ​​été décisives. Son héritage principal réside dans son développement de la doctrine moderne du champ de bataille et dans sa maîtrise de la logistique. [ citation requise ]

Thomas a généralement été tenu en haute estime par les historiens de la guerre civile Bruce Catton et Carl Sandburg ont écrit avec enthousiasme à son sujet, et de nombreux [ qui? ] considèrent Thomas comme l'un des trois principaux généraux de l'Union de la guerre, après Grant et William Tecumseh Sherman. Mais Thomas n'est jamais entré dans la conscience populaire comme ces hommes. Le général a détruit ses papiers privés, affirmant qu'il ne voulait pas que « sa vie soit imprimée à la sauvette aux yeux des curieux ». À partir des années 1870, de nombreux généraux de la guerre de Sécession publièrent des mémoires, justifiant leurs décisions ou relançant de vieilles batailles, mais Thomas, décédé en 1870, ne publia pas ses propres mémoires. In addition, most of his campaigns were in the Western theater of the war, which received less attention both in the press of the day and in contemporary historical accounts.

Grant and Thomas also had a cool relationship, for reasons that are not entirely clear, but are well-attested by contemporaries. When a rain-soaked Grant arrived at Thomas's headquarters before the Chattanooga Campaign, Thomas, caught up in other activity, did not acknowledge the general for several minutes until an aide intervened. Thomas's perceived slowness at Nashville—although necessitated by the weather—drove Grant into a fit of impatience, and Grant nearly replaced Thomas. Dans son Mémoires personnels, Grant tended to minimize Thomas's contributions, particularly during the Franklin-Nashville Campaign, saying his movements were "always so deliberate and so slow, though effective in defence." [39]

Grant did, however, acknowledge that Thomas's eventual success at Nashville obviated all criticism. [ citation requise ] Sherman, who had been close to Thomas throughout the war, also repeated the accusation after the war that Thomas was "slow", and this damning with faint praise tended to affect perceptions of the Rock of Chickamauga well into the 20th century. Both Sherman and Grant attended Thomas's funeral, and were reported by third parties to have been visibly moved by his passing. Thomas's legendary bay horse, Billy, bore his friend Sherman's name.

Thomas was always on good terms with his commanding officer in the Army of the Cumberland, William Rosecrans. Even after Rosecrans was relieved of command and replaced by Thomas, he had nothing but praise for him. Upon hearing of Thomas' death, Rosecrans sent a letter to the National Tribune, stating Thomas' passing was a "National Calamity. Few knew him better than I did, none valued him more." [40]

In 1887, Sherman published an article praising Grant and Thomas, and contrasting them to Robert E. Lee. After noting that Thomas, unlike his fellow Virginian Lee, stood by the Union, Sherman wrote:

During the whole war his services were transcendent, winning the first substantial victory at Mill Springs in Kentucky, January 20th, 1862, participating in all the campaigns of the West in 1862-3-4, and finally, December 16th, 1864 annihilating the army of Hood, which in mid winter had advanced to Nashville to besiege him. [41]

Sherman concluded that Grant and Thomas were "heroes" deserving "monuments like those of Nelson and Wellington in London, well worthy to stand side by side with the one which now graces our capitol city of 'George Washington.'" [42]

J. C. Buttre's 1877 engraving of Thomas, based on a photograph by George N. Bernard [43]


Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve

How does an admiral make a list of the worst generals? You start by being the only thing that can frustrate Napoleon more than a Russian winter. Pierre de Villeneuve had his first brush with history when he bravely ran away at the Battle of the Nile. His was one of just two French ships of the line to escape the destruction of the French fleet there. He retreated to Malta but was captured when that island fell to the British. He was soon released, however, and, as more capable French admirals either died or somehow incurred Napoleon’s disfavor, a path to the top echelons of command was opened for Villeneuve. In the autumn of 1804 he was placed in charge of the French fleet at Toulon and tasked with drawing the British fleet under Horatio Nelson to the Caribbean. Villeneuve was then to return in secret and help establish naval dominance of the English Channel in preparation for a land invasion of Britain. Disobeying orders, he sailed for Cádiz instead of the Channel, allowing Nelson’s fleet time to return and effectively scuttling Napoleon’s plans for a cross-Channel invasion. The British blockaded the port at Cádiz with a numerically inferior force, and Villeneuve, upon learning that he was to be relieved of command, rashly struck out at Nelson’s fleet. Nelson’s victory at the Battle of Trafalgar was so complete that it established British supremacy on the high seas for more than a century. Villeneuve lost 20 ships, while Nelson lost none. Although Nelson was killed in combat at Trafalgar, Villeneuve outlived him only by six months. After being taken prisoner (again) by the British, Villeneuve was released but committed suicide rather than face Napoleon’s wrath.


Biographies of Union Generals - History

Tableau 1
Sample questions taken from the Illinois Board of Medical Examiners, Examination for Regimental Surgery & Assistant Surgery, 1863.

What membranes invest the brain? Describe them.

What structures are cut in amputating at middle of the leg?

How many bones are there in the carpus? Name them.

Give differential diagnosis between shock and chill.

What are the most essential points in treatment of fractures?

Give the action of saliva in digestion and its daily amount.

Give the composition and functions of the blood.

Describe the portal circulation and its uses.

Why do we examine the tongue of the sick?

Give the causes and significance of thirst in fevers.

What diseases are characterized by special odors?

How would you prepare a domestic enema?

What are the remedial properties of Turpentine?

In what form would you administer it?

In what diseases would you employ electricity?

Civil War Medicine
by Dr Julius Bonello, MD

The Union generals stood silently and watched as the long line of wounded made their way back to Washington. Although the morning had started out as glorious for the United States, it had quickly turned into a military debacle. Almost 2,700 Union Soldiers had been killed or wounded in a battle fought near a meandering stream known as Bull Run. The generals now knew that this engagement would be a long and costly one. They had greatly underestimated the strength of their enemy. They also realized, at that moment, that there were woefully unprepared for what was to come. Medical supplies that had been sent to the battlefield had never arrived and, according to official reports, not one wounded soldier returned by ambulance after the battle.

From 1862 to 1865, the American Civil War would cause almost 10 million soldiers to need medical assistance. At the beginning of the war, the military had only 113 doctors to meet this demand. Something had to be done and done quickly.

BACKGROUND
The Army Medical Department entered the war unprepared. Its chief, Colonel Tom Lawson, who was more than 80 years old, considered the purchase of medical books an extravagance and was reported to have flown into a rage upon hearing that one post had two sets of surgical instruments. In January 1861, the United States Army numbered 16,000 soldiers and had a medical staff of 113 surgeons. Soon after the war started, 24 surgeons left for the South leaving 89 surgeons to administer the Union army. Although nearly all doctors of this period had received their medical education on an apprenticeship basis, younger ones usually had a medical school diploma. Because medical schools had no standardized testing and licensing requirements, and testing varied state by state, the medical knowledge of a doctor of the 1860s varied in education, skill and experience. (Table 1)

At the time of the Civil War, there were 100 medical schools in the United States. School consisted of two years, the second year being a complete repetition of the first year. At the beginning of the war some schools reduced their requirement to one year and counted a year on the battlefield as a year of apprenticeship. Some schools required only six weeks of formal learning before their students began an apprenticeship. Since many states had laws that prevented medical students from dissecting cadavers, graduates often did not see internal organs or any major trauma until their first experience in battle.

After the bombardment at Fort Sumter, southern students left the northern schools to attend southern medical schools. However, by 1863, because of the manpower shortage in the South, these medical schools closed, thereby adding to the woes of the southern medical department toward the end of the war.

Once they received their diploma, whether they liked it or not, the doctor of the day was a surgeon. Civilian doctors had little experience. At that time, civilian surgery involved what we would consider minor procedures, i.e. tooth extractions, laceration repair, drainage of abscesses, foreign body removal and similar conditions. Orthopedic practice was limited to splinting, and a joint space was never entered. True surgery was confined to a few obstetrical and gynecological procedures. No one was prepared for the carnage that was coming.

Because of these changes in medical school requirements and apprenticeships, the northern states were able to field almost 12,000 doctors during the Civil War. The Confederacy probably utilized a total of 8,000 doctors during the same time. Surgeons usually carried a rank of major and assistant surgeons were captains. Depending upon their length of service, a surgeon was paid between $162 and $200 per month.

In June 1861, two men met in New York with a group of devoted women, including Dr Elizabeth Blackwell, the first female physician in the United States. They formed the Women s Central Association of Relief for the Sick and Wounded. On May 16, delegates of this group descended on Washington, DC, demanding the creation of a sanitary commission. Lincoln, the Secretary of War and the medical department opposed the idea. Fortunately, General Lawson was at home sick, and his replacement, Dr Robert Wood, saw the logic of this proposal. On June 9, 1861, the United States Sanitary Commission was formed. In theory, the commission was to investigate and advise in matters of sanitation and hygiene in practice, it effected a purging and cleansing of the medical department monitored camps, hospital food, clothing, medical supplies, ambulance services and recruitment sent workers into the fields and hospitals to nurse and nourish and provided everything from chloroform to tobacco. By war s end, the commission had distributed almost $15 million worth of supplies, wholly provided by the citizens of the United States. (Table 2)

The most significant act produced by the commission was the White Paper of 1861. The commission reorganized itself, created new posts and, best of all, removed Lawson from the position of Surgeon General, replacing him with William Hammond. Hammond was an intelligent, able man with unbound energy and vision. His first move was an order that proper records be kept for all the sick, wounded and killed. This record is available today in a six-volume work found in most urban libraries. Hammond introduced a meaningful system for classifying disease, wrote and edited medical journals, accelerated the procurement of supplies and constantly fought to improve medical care. He recommended an ambulance corps, an army medical school and an army museum. He also proposed that the men, who drove ambulances and nursed the sick, be trained by the medical department. In May 1863, Hammond issued a decree restricting calomel (mercurous chloride), a powerful laxative, which had been used to treat diarrhea. The medical thinking of the 1800s focused on the bowels and bladder. If a good bowel movement or a good stream of urine could be produced, a patient was considered healthy. However, Hammond saw the high rate of mortality among patients with diarrhea and wanted calomel s use restricted. Most medical doctors considered this directive heresy, and they brought their complaint to Washington. Forcing a trial while Hammond was on tour, they found him guilty of conduct unbecoming an officer and relieved him of duty. Joseph K Barnes replaced him, but continued all of Hammond s proposals.

U ntil the Civil War, nurses in the United States were either veterans of earlier wars or the handicapped and mentally retarded. During the war, some nursing was performed by hospital stewards who were non-commissioned officers. Their duties were fully described by Joseph Woodward, a leading physician of his day. Woodward s manual for stewards outlined, in today s terms, the responsibilities of a registered nurse. During battles, the musical band that accompanied every regiment provided nursing care. Although almost every major engagement attracted local women who wanted to help administer medical care, their assistance was generally discouraged. The prospect of young women taking care of young men concerned the conservative faction of the nation.

In 1861, Dorothy Dix, well-known founder of institutions for the mentally insane, offered to provide trained nurses to staff military hospitals. In June 1861, she became superintendent of female nurses. Such a radical idea created a degree of public outcry however, the plan was generally well received by the military and the US Sanitary Commission. In mid 1861, thousands of women submitted their applications in response to Dix s call. Each candidate had to be past 30 years of age, healthy, plain almost to repulsion in dress and devoid of personal attractions. They ha d to know how to cook all kinds of low diet and avoid colored dresses, hoops, curls, jewelry and flowers on their bonnets. One such woman was Marianne Bickerdyke of Galesburg, Illinois. While on a trip to Cairo, Illinois, to supply the Union soldiers with medical supplies, she found a number of the soldiers hospitalized on beds of filthy straw laid over muddy tent floors, and dying of dysentery and typhoid. Enraged at Army inefficiency and without authorization, she went to work. She washed the casualties in bathtubs, dug the mud off the tent floors and fed her patients food sent down from Galesburg. For the duration of the war, Bickerdyke rode with the Western Army setting up hospitals, feeding her boys before they went into battle and working in front-line dressing stations. Not surprisingly, she was less popular with the brass. When the wife of an important colonel summoned her to care for her son s measles, Mother Bickerdyke unceremoniously refused stating that she had plenty of soldiers to work for. The colonel complained to General Sherman who replied, You have picked on the one person around here who outranks me. If you want to lodge your complaint against her, you will have to take it up with President Lincoln. By the end of the war, 3,000 to 4,000 female nurses had worked for the Union.

At the outbreak of the war, the United States was not operating a single general military hospital. The country began a gigantic building program, and by January 1863, the North had built 151 hospitals with 58,000 beds. By 1865, the North operated 204 general military hospitals with 137,000 beds, and by the end of the war, the Confederacy also had 150 hospitals, with one-third centered around Richmond, Virginia. The largest at Chimborazo held 8,000 beds.

MEDICAL CARE
Medical care during the mid-1800s was still quite primitive. Although the stethoscope was discovered in 1838, Harvard Medical School did not have one until three years after the war. The thermometer, which had been employed in Europe for almost 200 years, was almost nonexistent in the United States. Just 20 thermometers were available in northern hospitals during the war. Only a handful of surgeons knew about laryngoscopes and hypodermic needles or how to use them. Because medical thinking of the 1800s was centered on the bowels and bladder, many of the medications were diuretics or laxatives. Quinine had been used for malaria for many years. Opium, which was dusted into wounds or taken by mouth, was prescribed often for pain. Chloroform, which had been discovered as an anesthetic agent just 15 years earlier, was used throughout the war. Digitalis, colchicine, and belladonna were widely used throughout the war. The most commonly used medication, however, was whiskey. Whiskey was the number one analgesic administered after an operation. The dose was one ounce every 15 minutes for pain. Products were also used initially to clear or cover the stench in the air of busy and cramped hospitals. Many of these products contained chlorine, bromine, iodine or potassium permanganate and were known to have antiseptic qualities. Toward the end of the war, they were used for dressings or poured into superficial wounds. One product was Labarraque's solution, which is 10 times stronger than our present-day Dakin s solution. Initially used as a deodorant, it was poured into wounds during the war.

MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY DURING THE WAR
Traditional ideas of Civil War medicine are more similar to a Hollywood movie scene than reality: A tired and harried surgeon, his surgical frock covered with blood standing over a screaming patient, held down by his fellow soldiers. In reality, of the 600,000 soldiers who died during the conflict, two-thirds died from disease and only one-third on the battlefield or from wounds sustained in battle. (Table 3). The number one cause of death was the fluxes, now known as diarrhea or dysentery. Over three million cases were diagnosed during the Civil War, killing 400,000 soldiers. One entire volume of the six-volume Medical History of the War of the Rebellion is dedicated to soldiers suffering from diarrhea.

Of the injuries during the war, 94 percent were due to gunshot wounds, 6 percent to artillery, and less than 1 percent were secondary to bayonet or saber. According to official records, 33 percent of all wounds involved the arms, 35.7 percent involved the legs, 18 percent involved the trunk and 10 percent involved the head. The mortality of gunshot wounds were as follows:

Penetrating wounds of the abdomen and head: approximately 90 percent were fatal.

100 percent were fatal when the small bowel was injured 59 percent when the colon was injured and 100 percent when the stomach was injured.

A penetrating wound to the chest carried a 60 percent mortality rate.

Once the abdominal cavity had been entered, the surgeon had no recourse other than to give opium, whiskey or tobacco for comfort. No surgical interventions were available.

Three-quarters of all the operations performed during the Civil War were amputations. All limbs with open fractures were amputated, usually within the first 24 to 48 hours. The importance of early, prompt and swift surgical intervention was appreciated by the surgeons of this period. Samuel Gross, a surgeon during the war, wrote, the success of amputations was very fair when they were performed early but most unfortunate when they were put off for any length of time. He warned that the surgeon must be careful to guard against procrastination. The case must be met promptly and courageously delay of even a few hours may be fatal or at all events, place limb and life in eminent jeopardy. John Chisolm, a Confederate surgeon, echoed this testament with the dictum, the rule in military surgery is absolute viz that the amputating knife should immediately follow the condemnation of the limb. Approximately 80,000 amputations were performed under chloroform or ether anesthesia. Most were the flap type the arteries and veins were tied with silk suture. Of 174,000 Union army wounds of the extremities, almost 30,000 soldiers underwent amputation with an overall mortality rate of 26 percent.

The high mortality from injuries is secondary to injuries from the bullet that was used. The Minie ball, named after the French captain who first developed it, was a slow, heavy, soft-lead projectile, which penetrated a body at a velocity of 950 feet per second (slow compared to today s weapons). In addition to the tumbling effect of the projectile, this bullet would cause extensive bleeding, resulting in severe and often lethal shock.

There were 494 thoracotomies attempted, with 200 deaths, resulting in a mortality of approximately 40 percent. In 900 cases, the skull was opened with a mortality of approximately 67 percent. Of 2,818 soldiers diagnosed with sepsis, only 71 lived. Osteomyelitis, erysipelas, gangrene and septicemia were common after surgery. Once gangrene had set in, almost 50 percent of the soldiers died.

Documented pneumonia took the lives of almost 20,000 federal and 19,000 Confederate soldiers while smallpox killed 1,000 soldiers in three months in one Virginia hospital. Scarlet fever and measles occasionally caused a death. Gonorrhea and syphilis were treated fairly commonly in the North and South. There are no statistics on the number of women and subsequent children infected with venereal disease however, considering the fact that Union physicians treated 170,000 cases of venereal disease, the figures must be staggering. One Civil War researcher estimated that one-third of the men who died in Union and Confederate veterans homes were killed by the later stages of venereal disease.

Nineteen thousand Confederates died in Union prisons during the war, while 26,000 Federal soldiers died in southern prisons during the war. The most famous of which was in Andersonville, Georgia. This prison was built to house 10,000 soldiers but, at its height, confined over 33,000 prisoners, making it the fifth largest city in the Confederacy. Prisoners were allowed no means to build shelter. Their daily ration was one cup of cornmeal, three teaspoons of beans and a teaspoon of salt. For every 1,000 soldiers imprisoned there, 793 died. Stating it another way, one prisoner died every 11 minutes. This was almost twice the mortality rate seen in the most infamous northern prison camp, Elmira, New York, where 441 of every 1,000 soldiers died

SUMMARY
If one wants to learn surgery, one must go to war, Hippocrates wrote. The number of deaths surrounding the Civil War is staggering. Of the nearly three million soldiers who participated in the conflict, approximately 618,000 died two-thirds by disease, one -third in battle. The total mortality of the war represents the loss of 2 percent of the entire United States population at that time. Union statistics document the treatment of almost one-half million injuries and six million cases of illness. Nearly 500,000 men came out of the war permanently disabled. In Mississippi, in 1866, one-fifth of the state s revenue was spent on artificial limbs. Of the 12,344 surgeons in the Union medical corp, 336 were killed in the line of duty or died while in service. In his manual for military surgeons, Chisolm wrote, the surgeon on the battlefield must participate in the dangers.

America has never again witnessed pain and death in such magnitude as the Civil War. More Americans died in that conflict than in all other US wars combined. The battle at Shiloh, Tennessee, caused 24,000 casualties. This number of casualties easily surpasses the combined number of Americans who died in the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812 and the Mexican War. The battle at Antietam, Maryland, on September 17, 1863, took 23,000 casualties, making it the bloodiest day in American history. Between July 1-3, 1863, 51,000 people were killed, wounded or missing at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The number of casualties is almost as many as were killed during the 15-year Vietnam War conflict. On June 3, 1864, at Coldharbor, Virginia, in a frontal assault led by General Ulysses S Grant, the Union army lost more than 12,000 men 7,000 of them dead in the first seven minutes. General Robert E Lee lost 2,500 men.

The American Civil War was the last great conflagration before the discovery of bacteria. Although Louis Pasteur s work was carried out during the 1850s, it was not available for general knowledge until 10 to 15 years after the war. In 1867, Joseph Lister published his landmark work on surgical antisepsis, Antiseptic Principle. His principles met wide resistance, especially by American physicians, but were finally accepted and put into effect by World War I. In 1878, Robert Koch discovered the role that bacteria play in causing disease. It would take another war, World War II, and the discovery of antibiotics to bring this chapter to a close.

Tableau 2 A partial list of the supplies and goods that the sanitary commission sent to Gettysburg after the July 1863 battle.


Contenu

John A. Logan was born near what is now Murphysboro, Jackson County, Illinois, the son of Dr. John Logan and Dr. Logan's second wife, Elizabeth (Jenkins) Logan. [1] He studied with his father and with a private tutor, then studied for three years at Shiloh College. He enlisted in the 1st Illinois Infantry for the Mexican–American War, and received a commission as a second lieutenant and assignment as the regimental quartermaster.

After the war Logan studied law in the office of his uncle, Alexander M. Jenkins, graduated from the Law Department of the University of Louisville in 1851, and practiced law with success.

John A. Logan entered politics as a Douglas Democrat, was elected county clerk in 1849, served in the Illinois House of Representatives from 1853 to 1854 and in 1857 and for a time, during the interval, was prosecuting attorney of the Third Judicial District of Illinois. In 1858 and 1860, he was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1853, John A. Logan helped pass a law to prohibit all African Americans, including freedmen, from settling in the state. [2]

U.S. Representative Logan fought at Bull Run as an unattached volunteer in a Michigan regiment, and then returned to Washington where, before he resigned his congressional seat on April 2, 1862, he entered the Union Army as Colonel of the 31st Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment, which he organized. He was known by his soldiers as "Black Jack" [3] because of his black eyes and hair and swarthy complexion, and was regarded as one of the most able officers to enter the army from civilian life. In a time when political generals usually performed poorly in battle, Logan was an exception.

Before resigning his seat, Union Army Colonel Logan served in the army of Ulysses S. Grant in the Western Theater and was present at the Battle of Belmont on November 7, 1861, where his horse was killed, and at Fort Donelson, where he was wounded on February 15, 1862. Soon after the victory at Donelson, he resigned his seat on April 2, 1862 and was promoted to brigadier general in the volunteers, as of March 21, 1862. Major John Hotaling served as his chief of staff. To confuse matters, the 32nd Illinois was commanded at Shiloh by a different Colonel John Logan. During the Siege of Corinth, John A. Logan commanded first a brigade and then the 1st Division of the Army of the Tennessee. In the spring of 1863, he was promoted to major general to rank from November 29, 1862.

In Grant's Vicksburg Campaign, Logan commanded the 3rd Division of James B. McPherson's XVII Corps, which was the first to enter the city of Vicksburg in July 1863 after its capture. Logan then served as the city's military governor. In November 1863 he succeeded William Tecumseh Sherman in command of the XV Corps and at the Battle of Atlanta (July 22, 1864), after the death of James B. McPherson during the day, he assumed command of the Army of the Tennessee. He was relieved a short time afterward by Oliver O. Howard. He returned to Illinois for the 1864 elections but rejoined the army afterward and commanded his XV corps in Sherman's Carolinas Campaign.

In December 1864, Grant became impatient with George H. Thomas's apparent unwillingness to attack immediately at Nashville and sent Logan to relieve him. Logan was stopped in Louisville when news came that Thomas had completely smashed John Bell Hood's Confederate army in the Battle of Nashville.

Logan had been disappointed when Howard was given permanent command of the Army of the Tennessee after McPherson's death, and Sherman arranged for Logan to lead the army during the May 1865 Grand Review in Washington.

After the war, Logan resumed his political career, now as a Republican, and was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1867 to 1871, and of the United States Senate from 1871 until 1877 and again from 1879 until his death in 1886. His re-election bid in 1885 was contentious, and Logan only won after a Democratic representative died and was replaced with a Republican. After the war, Logan, who had always been a staunch partisan, was identified with the radical wing of the Republican Party. His forceful, passionate speaking, popular on the platform, was less effective in the halls of legislation. In 1868, he was one of the managers in the impeachment trial of U.S. President Andrew Johnson. One of Logan's issues in the Senate was his efforts to stop any action taken to overturn the conviction in the court-martial of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter.

He was the second Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic from 1868 to 1871 and helped lead the call for creation of Memorial Day, originally called Decoration Day, as a national public holiday. His war record and his great personal following, especially among members of the Grand Army of the Republic, contributed to his nomination for Vice President in 1884 on the ticket with James G. Blaine, but they were not elected.

Logan was also a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States - a military society which was composed of officers who had served in the Union armed forces during the American Civil War.

Logan showed signs of illness when the 49th United States Congress opened its first official session on December 7, 1886. By mid-December, Logan's arms swelled and his lower limbs were in pain. After several days of intense discomfort, the ailment subsided. He relapsed a few days later and eventually struggled to maintain consciousness. On December 24, Logan's doctor's conceded that the condition might be fatal. Around three o'clock in the afternoon on December 26, Logan died at his home in Columbia Heights, Washington, D.C. [4] After his death, Logan's body lay in state in the United States Capitol. [5] He was buried at the United States Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery in Washington.

Logan was the author of two books on the Civil War. Dans The Great Conspiracy: Its Origin and History (1886), he sought to demonstrate that secession and the Civil War were the result of a long-contemplated "conspiracy" to which various Southern politicians had been party since the Nullification Crisis he also vindicated the pre-war political positions of Stephen A. Douglas and himself. [6] He also wrote The Volunteer Soldier of America (1887). His son, John Alexander Logan Jr., was also an army officer and posthumously received the Medal of Honor for actions during the Philippine–American War. His brother-in-law, Cyrus Thomas, participated in the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871.

Logan was related to Cornelius Ambrosius Logan (1806-1853), the Irish-American actor and playwright, possibly as a first cousin. John Logan adopted Cornelius' daughter Kate (1847-1872), probably in 1866. [7] Cornelius' son Cornelius Ambrose Logan, a physician and diplomat, wrote a memoir of John Logan which was included in his The Volunteer Soldier of America.


John Pope

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John Pope, (born March 16, 1822, Louisville, Ky., U.S.—died Sept. 23, 1892, Sandusky, Ohio), Union general in the American Civil War who was relieved of command following the Confederate triumph at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1842, Pope served as a topographical engineer with the army throughout most of the 1840s and ’50s. He did, however, see combat during the Mexican War, serving with distinction in the campaigns of General Zachary Taylor.

Following the outbreak of the Civil War, Pope was appointed brigadier general of volunteers in 1861 and was promoted to major general in 1862. After securing the Mississippi River for the Union almost as far south as Memphis, Pope attracted the admiration of President Abraham Lincoln. He was made a brigadier general of the regular army and transferred to Washington, D.C., where he was given command of the Army of Virginia.

In August 1862 a Confederate force under General Stonewall Jackson moved toward Pope’s army. Jackson’s force was reinforced by troops under generals James Longstreet and Robert E. Lee, and Pope—misgauging the number and location of the enemy—issued muddled and confusing orders. The result was the decisive defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run, August 29–30, and the loss of about 15,000 Union troops. Pope attempted to blame his subordinate officers—especially General Fitz-John Porter—for the debacle, but in September Pope was relieved of his command and sent to Minnesota to quell a Sioux uprising.

After the Civil War, Pope served in various posts, notably as commander of the Department of the Missouri (1870–83), in which he was primarily engaged in protecting settlers in the Northwest and Southwest from Indian attacks. On Oct. 26, 1882, he was promoted to major general of the regular army, a rank he held until he retired in 1886.


Who Were the Ten Most Important Generals Of the American Civil War?

About the Author: Mr. Morris is the author of seven well-received books on 19th Century American history and literature. He has served as a consultant for A&E, the History Channel, and edited a three-book series for Purdue University Press on American Civil War and post-Civil War history, journalism and literature. His work has been reviewed in the New York Times Book Review, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal, the International Herald Tribune, New Yorker, Atlantic Monthly, Boston Review of Books and New Leader, as well as many leading newspapers across the country and abroad. In addition to the Smithsonian Institution, he has also spoken at the National Portrait Gallery, the National Arts Club in New York City, the Atlanta History Center, the Flagler Museum in Palm Beach and the Northern Trust in Miami.

Ulysse S. Grant

Not only did Grant win the first major turning-point battle of the war, at Fort Donelson, he also prevented the South’s first and best attempt at reversing that turning point, at Shiloh. He then captured Vicksburg, clearing the way for Union control of the Mississippi broke the Confederate siege at Chattanooga and appointed strong and capable subordinates in William T. Sherman and Phil Sheridan. He fought Robert E. Lee to a standstill in the Battle of the Wilderness, bottled up Lee’s army at Petersburg, and caught up with it at the Battle of Appomattox, winning the Civil War in the process.

Nathan Bedford Forrest

No less a judge than Robert E. Lee reportedly said that the Confederacy’s best general was “a man I have never met. His name is Forrest.” Lee was right. The fierce, unrelenting genius of Forrest prefigured modern warfare, with its emphasis on the enemy’s army, not his territory. “War means fighting and fighting means killing,” Forrest said. He did not say, illiterately, “Git thar fustest with the mostest,” but his concept of highly swift, mobile forces, seen most clearly in his overwhelming victory at Brice’s Crossroads, is still studied by military leaders. Perhaps the highest tribute to Forrest’s self-taught ability as a commander was the fact that Forrest was the only Confederate cavalryman whom Ulysses S. Grant or William T. Sherman feared.

The commander-in-chief of Federal forces during the Civil War, Lincoln had very limited military experience as a volunteer in the Black Hawk War. Being a genius, however, allowed him to master virtually every situation he was in, including war. He clearly saw both the larger outlines and the smaller details of the Union war effort, and he seldom suggested a military course that was not logical and well-considered. Lincoln made his share of mistakes in choosing generals, but he was much quicker than his Confederate counterpart, Jefferson Davis, in recognizing his mistakes and correcting them. When he finally found a commander in Ulysses S. Grant who was as relentless as he was in prosecuting the war, he had the good judgment to let him to it.

Robert E. Lee

Possibly rated too high, given the fact that Lee fundamentally misunderstood the most basic aim of the Confederacy, which was to survive until it got stronger, gained foreign recognition, and came to seem a factual inevitability. His two misguided invasions of the North, besides giving up the South’s moral high ground as an invaded country, bled dry his matchless army, ultimately eliminating its ability to fight on anything like even terms with the North. Lee also commanded badly at the Battle of Gettysburg, the most important battle of the war, and his decision to make a final frontal assault with Pickett’s division surely remains one of the worst and least defensible decisions a great commander ever made. When Lee told the survivors, “It is all my fault,” he was not being noble—he was merely stating the obvious.

Patrick Cleburne

The quiet, gentlemanly, Irish-born Cleburne was a superb commander at the regimental, brigade, division and corps levels. He excelled at both offense and defense, and he never failed to fulfill his assigned role in any battle in which he took part. His unconventional and unpopular advice to arm southern slaves and allow them to fight for their freedom fell on deaf ears, and resulted in the stagnation of Cleburne’s career. (Whether or not this would have worked is debatable, but by that time in the war it would have been worth a try.) No other Civil War general ever went to his death more clear-eyed and unillusioned than Patrick Cleburne at Franklin, which is a pretty good definition of true heroism. “We will do our duty,” he said—and did.

Stonewall Jackson

Old Blue Light was one of the great eccentric geniuses of the Civil War–or any other war. Like his closest counterpart in the western theater, Nathan Bedford Forrest, Jackson understood the relentless logic of war. When his men held back from shooting the bravest Union soldiers attacking them out of misguided admiration, Jackson told them those were precisely the soldiers they should be killing. Jackson stumbled at Kernstown and the Seven Days’ Battles, but his Shenandoah Valley campaign is rightly considered one of the outstanding military feats in American military history. He won the Battle of Chancellorsville for Robert E. Lee, and it is certainly arguable that he would have done the same thing at Gettysburg, had he lived. Indeed, with the exception of Cold Harbor, which any competent general could have managed, Lee never won another major battle after Jackson was killed.

Phil Sheridan

The unlovely, unlikable Sheridan was an absolute bulldog on the battlefield, and he excelled at every level. Few generals on either side took part in as many major battles, in both the eastern and western theaters, as Sheridan. He commanded cavalry in Mississippi early in the war before moving over to the infantry, where he played notable roles at Perryville, Stones River, the Battle of Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge, before joining his mentor, Ulysses S. Grant, in Virginia. His independent command of the Army of the Shenandoah brought crucial victories at Winchester, Fisher’s Hill and Cedar Creek, and his return to the battlefield at the latter engagement became one of the legendary feats of the war. His relentless pursuit of Lee’s army helped shorten the war and saved lives by inducing the Confederate chieftain, however reluctantly, to face the inevitable and surrender at Appomattox.

George B. McClellan

Little Mac had his glaring weaknesses as a general, chief among them a humane reluctance to sacrifice the lives of his own men, but no one ever questioned his ability to organize and train an army. The creation, from the ground up, of the Army of the Potomac was a great personal feat and a crucial contribution to the Union war effort. In using his army to defeat the enemy, McClellan was cautious, but not nearly as slow as his critics have maintained. He failed to capture Richmond in the Peninsula Campaign, but he brought the battle to the very outskirts of the Confederate capital, and he won his share of the Seven Days’ Battles. Most importantly, McClellan won the Battle of Antietam—perhaps the true turning point in the war. His opponent, Robert E. Lee, always said that McClellan was his toughest opponent.

George H. Thomas

Thomas’s reputation suffered during and after the war because he was not a part of the inner circle of Grant, Sherman and Sheridan. He also hurt his cause by twice declining to accept command of the main Union army in the west when it was offered to him. The fact that he was a native-born Virginian also handicapped Thomas, despite his undeniable loyalty to the Union. Still, he won the first major Union victory of the war at Mill Springs, Ky., and his stubborn stand at Chickamauga prevented the utter decimation of the Federal forces there. His men then took Missionary Ridge (not Grant’s original plan), and at Nashville, Thomas won perhaps the most overwhelming victory of the war. Unlike any of the other generals on this list, he never turned in a poor performance.

William T. Sherman

Sherman has always been overrated as a battlefield commander. He tended to be shaky in times of stress, and he came close to single-handedly losing the Battle of Shiloh by carelessly neglecting to picket his position. He completely failed to take Missionary Ridge, which his good friend Ulysses S. Grant badly wanted him to do, and his frontal assaults at Kennesaw Mountain and Pickett’s Mill were murderously ill-considered. Nevertheless, Sherman deserves credit for helping Grant take Vicksburg, and his capture of Atlanta in the late summer of 1864 may well have saved the presidency for Abraham Lincoln—a not inconsiderable accomplishment in itself. His subsequent March to the Sea, although not nearly as destructive as legend has it, nevertheless brought the war to the doorsteps of southern civilians and helped convince them that further resistance was futile. He could probably have been elected president in 1876, had he not refused to accept the Republican nomination.

This article by Roy Morris Jr. first appeared in le réseau d'histoire de la guerre on April 26, 2020.

Image: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. 1866. Constant Mayer. Chrysler Museum of Art. Domaine public.


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Commentaires:

  1. Nikazahn

    Bravo, cette excellente phrase est juste

  2. Tentagil

    Je suis désolé, cela a interféré ... Cette situation me m'est familière. Discutons.

  3. Thorley

    Informations radicalement mauvaises

  4. Eimar

    Maintenant, tout est clair, merci beaucoup pour l'information.

  5. Marnin

    Vous avez peut-être eu tort?



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